Are we living in the twilight years of AIDS?

In recent months, there have been several major advancements in the search for an HIV vaccine—breakthroughs that could lead to modern medicine’s greatest achievement.

A Canadian medical company called Sumagen has teamed with Western University in Ontario to complete the first round of successful clinical trials for a medication called SAV001-H, which boosts a patient’s natural antibodies. The researchers hope the vaccine could become the world’s first preventative HIV treatment.

At Oregon Health & Science University, a team is experimenting with a unique way of fighting HIV that uses a specially modified virus—which is so infectious it triggers immune responses throughout the entire body—to hunt out and destroy HIV within a patient’s body.

After receiving the experimental treatment, nine out of 16 monkeys were cleared of an infection similar to HIV.

“It’s like their T-cells were turned into the East German secret police, hunting down infected cells until there were none left,”the lead researcher told The New York Times.